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Indian Economy: 2009 Vs. 2010

Introduction

Indian Economy is the eleventh largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). India was under social democratic based government under 1947 to 1991. This economy was based on public ownership and protectionism with slow growth rate. Since 1991, India changed its policy and reformed it to a market-based economy.

The currency of India is the Indian Rupee. As of 30th Dec 2010, 44.8 INR equals to 1 USD and 1 EUR equals 59.34 INR. The major stock exchanges in India are Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). India’s GDP accounts for 57.2% service industry, 28% industrial sector and 14.6% agricultural sector. The labour force totals half a billion workers. India currently accounts for 1.5% of world trade as of 2007 according to World Trade Organization (WTO).

Indicators of Economy

An economy has various indicators which allow analysis and prediction of future performances. Some of these are Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment rate, Consumer Price Index (a measure of Inflation), stock market prices and various others.

Gross Domestic Product

The gross domestic product (GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI) is the amount of goods and services produced in a year, in a country. It is the market value of all final goods and services made within the borders of a country in a year. In 2009, GDP nominal of India was $1,367 billion (11th) whereas; GDP PPP was $3,862 billion (4th). Forecast for 2010: GDP nominal will be $1,430 billion and GDP PPP will be $4,001 billion. If we compare per capita GDP, in 2009 GDP nominal per capita was $1,142 (142nd) and expected to be $1,176 for 2010. In 2009, GDP PPP per capita was $3,176 (127th) whereas in 2010 it is expected to be $3290. India’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate significantly slowed to 6.7% in 2008-09, but subsequently recovered to 7.2% in 2009-10

Inflation

A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes through time in the price level of consumer goods and services purchased by households. It is a measure of inflation. In India, instead of CPI, wholesale price index is calculated. The Indian method for calculating inflation, the Wholesale Price Index, is different from the rest of world. Each week, the wholesale price of a set of 435 goods is calculated by the Indian government. Since these are wholesale prices, the actual prices paid by consumers are far higher. The trend of Inflation rate is shown in the graph below. Have a look.


Figure 1: Consumer Price Index of India, Feb’09-Nov’10

The inflation rate in Apr 09 was 8.03%, lowest in the duration. It advances to sudden increase in Aug 09 at 11.89%. From there after, for four months the inflation rate was almost same. From Dec 09 it starts rising again and it goes to the max of the duration in Feb 10 with 16.22%. After that for the last 10 months it is coming down slowly and in Nov 10, inflation rate is 9.7%. Still, 9.7% is very high. But, compared to 16.22% it is much under control.

Unemployment Rate

The labour force in India is 467 million, 2nd in the world, as of 2009. The labour force division in each sector is 52% in agriculture, 14% in industry and 34% in services. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force. The unemployment rate of India in 2009 was 6.8% (85th rank) which is expected to increase to 10.7% (121st rank) in 2010.

Foreign Direct Investment

Following are some tables showing comparison of Stock of direct foreign investment – at home, Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad and Stock of domestic credit in USD.

Year

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

144200000000

23

50.27 %

31 December 2008 est.

2010

157900000000

24

9.50 %

31 December 2009 est.

 

Year

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

58180000000

30

55.15 %

31 December 2008 est.

2010

76620000000

26

31.69 %

31 December 2009 est.

 

Year

Stock of domestic credit

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

769300000000

16

0.00 %

31 December 2008

2010

973500000000

16

26.54 %

31 December 2009

 

Foreign Exchange Reserves

Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves or FX reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits and bonds held by central banks and monetary authorities. However, the term in popular usage commonly includes foreign exchange and gold, SDRs and IMF reserve positions. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in India in the start of 2009 were $254 billion. In the start of 2010, it was $274.7 billion. Currently, as of Nov’10 it is $300.2 billion.

Economy on the basis of Sectors

Industry

Industry accounts for 28% of the GDP and employ 14% of the total workforce. However, about one-third of the industrial labour force is engaged in simple household manufacturing only. The major industries in India are textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software and pharmaceuticals.

Year

Industrial production growth rate

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

4.80 %

51

-43.53 %

2008 est.

2010

8.20 %

9

70.83 %

2009 est.

Services

India is fifteenth in services output. It provides employment to 23% of work force, and it is growing fast. It has the largest share in the GDP, accounting for 54.6% in 2009 and expected to be 57% in 2010. The total no. of people getting employment in this sector in 2010 will be 34% (estimated).

Conclusion

If we sum up the conclusion from above it is quite easy to say that India is progressing rapidly for 2010 than 2009. Being an agriculture based nation, India is changing slowly to an Industry based nation with support from service sector. The main concern in India’s progress is inflation rate. Value of INR has increased in the mentioned period. No doubt India is moving towards progress and next year we can see some much nice figures and ranks in all the section.

JEE: Should I Take A Drop?

Should I take a drop this year? Should I take admission and prepare for JEE or Should I drop and don’t take admissions? This blog is full of questions like this. As every lock has its own key, every person is different from another. Answer to these questions varies from person to person and case to case. Few times in comments, I have explained it very nicely discussing each and every aspect from which the decision should be taken. Keep this in mind that no one will take decisions on your behalf. You are old enough to take your career based decisions. Don’t depend on any one for your decision. These are done by those who need it to blame on someone in case of failure.

I’m going to discuss few aspects and challenges which would help you take this decision in a better way. I would surely love to see your comments. Do share your views here.

Why to take a drop?

Aspirants think about taking the engineering entrance exams once again only in one scenario. When they feel that they performed less and they can get much better rank if given one more chance. Many a times the reason for poor performance is imbalanced life after 10th.  Till 10th students are required to read from specific books with specific curriculum in a specific time frame. Even though life till 10th is stereo-type and boring. Its much easy and without tension. After 10th suddenly number of subjects increase. New unknown subjects are waiting for you. If one is just aiming for 12th, life again becomes stereo-type 6 months after taking admission in 11th. But, aspiration for better career needs to tougher aims. One can’t just think about scoring good marks in 12th. But, you  also need good marks in engineering entrance tests. The syllabus and pattern of which are not very much similar to 12th. Without a good mentor, students often gets confused. Till the time their confusion gets cleared. They are just few months away from 12th board.

Earlier, (at least till my time) 12th board was just to get a pass marks. Concentration and focus used to be on engineering entrance test from day 1. Not much confusion about how to keep balance. I had one more advantage. Attendance was not an issue in the school for me.

But, in order to increase the importance of 12th board. HRD ministry has taken some new measures which made the life of engineering aspirants hell. Now, marks in 12th board is as much important as one’s performance in JEE. Students are not just confused in making balance between 12th board preparation and JEE. They are even confused with the pattern and relation of 12th, JEE Main and JEE Advanced performance.

Analysis of Benefit

What I am going to discuss now has already explained by me in reply to a comment earlier.

Lets say, we give grading to all the engineering colleges from 1 to 10. 1 being the best and 10 the worst. Then, we can keep old IITs on rank 1. New one on 3 or 4. NITs on 2 and, likewise colleges with no or very little placements on 9 or 10.

Now, after appearing for JEE, one may definitely tell whether their performance was up to their caliber. Now, lets say this year you are getting 5th grade college. If you feel your performance next year would improve by 20 %. Then, you may expect to get 4th grade college next year. If improvement would be 30-40 %. expect 3rd grade college next. Likewise, you may do your calculation.

Is the benefit worth a drop?

Now, this is surely a Million Dollar question. Is the benefit you are calculating by the above analysis is worth a drop?

In order to understand this you need to first analyze the loss and gain by the drop. Importance of one year drop is a lot. You have to be prepared for a question about this in placement interviews. You have to be mentally tough to read the same books, same concepts and same problems once again. No doubt it is going to reduce your bank balance by an year’s salary. But, that won’t hurt you much. The most important thing is that you loose your whole one year. A total wastage. You stop your career growth for one year.

Now, in your decision for the drop, my thinking is not to go for drop if you are hopeful of just improving your performance next year by less than 30 %. Let me explain this by examples. Suppose this year you are hopeful to get a decent branch in a decent NIT. But, your aim is any similar branch in an old IIT( not, a rank less than 600-700 in JEE Advanced). At the time of admission in engineering college or even placements, these brand names matters a lot. But, after 4-5 years out of college, at the time of increment or job shift, these brand names don’t play any role. It will depend on your performance, knowledge and attitude. The amount of energy that you waste in preparing once again for JEE Advanced could be utilized at NIT itself to gain more knowledge. The placement from NIT might not be little lesser in package than IIT. But, if you add one year wastage for JEE Advanced preparation and growth you could have gained if you would have continued in NIT. After 9 years, decision to go to NIT would be said as a much better and wiser decision.

However, a rank less than 500 in IIT is not comparable in such scenario. As placement and growth chance would be more. But, to get such performance after a drop, you need improvement by more than 30 % compared to current.

Similarly, if you are getting a 5th grade college this year and you are hopeful to get at least 3rd grade college next year. You may go for a drop.

It is true that many top executives in India are alumini of IITs and IIMs. But, that does not mean all top executives are from only IITs and IIMs. Your foundation is important. But, that is not the only place to spend all your energy. For success in your life. You need to continuously give your best effort.

Sometimes, in few cases due to some unforeseen or unavoidable circumstances, performance deteriorates a lot than the ideal. In such case, taking a drop is very common and understandable. But, in normal case you need to assess your gain and loss with your chance of improvement. Discuss your situation with your family members, seniors and teachers. Get their suggestions and viewpoints about your probable losses and gains after a drop. The more you will discuss the more your understanding will develop and you would be ready with the decision.

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IIT JEE: What should be the strategy for repeaters?

IIT is a dream for many students. Many had waited 4-5 years to crack IIT JEE. Some even spent few years in other college, and then came to IIT without any tension about year loss. But, since 2006, IIT JEE has taken few steps to filter genuine quality from repeaters.

IIT JEE committee in 2006 changes few eligibility rules for IIT JEE. These changes allow only those who have passed the qualifying exam not more than one year back. Simply we can say. Maximum two attempts are allowed for IIT JEE to any students.

Normally students, who are not both lucky and brilliant simultaneously, fail to mark an impression in first attempt of IIT JEE. I’m pointing at lucky and brilliant both. Even brilliance can’t guarantee you to be an IITian in first shot. There are lots of complications. Like you have to cover the syllabus in right time, you have to face board exams just few days back of IIT JEE, you have to quickly switch to IIT JEE syllabus after board exam. Not to say all these needs proper timing. Many loose the preparation at last steps not due to brilliance. But, due to so much complications and lack of proper guidance. Just before IIT JEE, many lose their chance to get selected. So, it needs luck with brilliance to pass IIT JEE in first shot.

I will discuss here exactly how you should prepare if you had failed in first appearance of IIT JEE. What should be the strategy? How you should study? When is the right time for pace? When you should join test series? When your revision should start? Should you join any coaching or home preparation is best? I will discuss all these points here. Also, if you want any point to be added by me raise your voice. Use comments section.

First of all, let’s decide whether you need coaching or not. Note it down that you should be associated in IIT JEE coaching once in your three-year duration of IIT JEE preparation. If you have taken any professional coaching for IIT JEE up till 12th. Now, go for home preparation. If you were not associated with coaching during 12th or 11th especially for IIT JEE, it is a good time for you to do so. Do not forget. Coaching is very important to know most about IIT JEE. Especially those who are average do well after coaching. (See this article to know how coaching help different students in IIT JEE preparation.)

One thing I want to urge all. If you think that there is some chance for you to crack IIT JEE. But, less chance in first shot. Then, go for IIT JEE coaching during 11th and 12th. Don’t leave the professional help for post-board duration. Coaching gives you a lot. But, it takes away your energy and also need much mental and physical work. Students sometime get lost in mental and physical strain they undergo during coaching. Also, you will become much more mature about IIT JEE after taking coaching. So, you could study in right way in your final shot. I will discuss more about it later in some other article.

If you are thinking to go for coaching after board exams, then, remember to give good time for self-study. Don’t get lost in assignments and hand-outs provided by your coaching. Solve them. But, also give appropriate time for IIT JEE text-books and standard problem book. Remove confusions related with concepts using full help of coaching system. IIT JEE concentrates more at those points which are loop holes for students. You can do better if you keep in mind above mentioned points. These are enough for you. Remember, coaching will take away most of your time. Still you have to work-hard restlessly.

Now, if you had already taken coaching during 12th or don’t want to join any coaching. These are for you.

After IIT JEE exam or exam period gets over. Don’t waste much time in enjoyment. Re-start your preparation after a gap of not more than 7 days.

When you start the preparation, first go for little analyze. Try to figure out which chapters need improvement and which are your best portions. Also, which book to follow? In this one year of preparation you should concentrate more on clarifying concept by solving more and more problem. Problem should be solved by books which have IIT JEE sort of problems. I would suggest go for Arihant books in Physics and Mathematics. For chemistry, Arihant books are not so much good. Try Schaum series or others like O P Tondon or O P Agrawal for physical chemistry. For Organic strictly go for Solomons & Fryhle. It is best book for Organic chemistry for IIT JEE. Use this book with its solution book. For Inorganic use Arihant. Memorize every reaction type. Go for problems. The more regularly you solve the problems. The more you will improve in Organic or Inorganic Chemistry. Not to mention, not just above books are only best books in the market. But, yeah these are most tested.

If you have material of some top institute of IIT JEE. Refer them too while reading concept from above mentioned books. Try to solve the variety of problems available. The more you get familiar with problem more you will solve the problem in IIT JEE. Remember IIT JEE don’t check your speed. You will have enough time to solve problems to secure good rank in IIT JEE. So, concentrate on practicing more and more problem. Required speed will be acquired just by practice.

Now, I’m going to tell you a very important trick you should use which would help you later in revision. While going through problems, mark the problems which are unsolved, hard or tricky. Even those which you solved, but you want to see them while revision. On an average you will get 10-15 marked questions in 100 you will attempt. Use these questions when you revise. This simple technique will boost up your revision time 2-3 folds. Normally, while revision students get confused from where to start revision. But, with this trick in use, you can just refer theory quickly from somewhere (like Brilliant tutorial provides YG File compendium or FIITJEE provides some books with GMP). Then, go through the problems you had marked earlier. Remember, it’s on to you which problem to mark. Don’t mark just hard problem. Instead, mark the problems in a way which could help you to revise in less time later. So, after solving chapters go through marked problems and see whether you can revise with those problems.

Normally, you should close first phase of detailed study, up till December to January. Then, phase 2, revision by above mentioned way till 20 – 25 days prior to exam date. For phase 2, if time permits you could also use GMP or YG Files. In last phase, solve simulator tests or sample tests provided by many institutes free or on some charge. Buy them and solve. In between, nearly in Nov-Dec each institute starts their test series for IIT JEE. Join a good test series. Sit for it regularly. But, never spend time to prepare for test series. Not even on day prior to test date. If you desperately want to read a little, give 1hr -2hr on last night before test series’ test date. You should not spend much time on test series preparation.

Sample tests should be taken by you in the same time duration as for IIT JEE exam. Like this year schedule is Paper 1: 9:00 AM – 12:00 noon and Paper 2: 2:00 PM -5:00 PM. Sit for tests each day at 9:00 AM sharp. Use chair and table for giving exams. Your body should adjust to exam schedule. Between 12:00 to 2:00 test your score for Paper 1. Afterwards, look through solution for incorrect answers. Know where you missed. Then, take your lunch. Lastly, relax a bit. Again at sharp 2:00 PM sit for Paper 2. After exam check your marks. Go through solutions for incorrect questions. Try to analyze where you are failing. In which portion you score most negative marks. If a bit concept update is required go for it. But, don’t go deep study.

After test session, relax for an hour or so. Watch TV. Go to friends home. Else sleep.

At night, go for unsolved problems. These are the problems which are very much similar to IIT JEE type of problems. Many of these problems could be faced by you first time. Try to solve them using all books and materials you have available. This is the last time to increase your rank in IIT JEE. More sincerely you solve more your rank will improve. This single step could give you a gain of around 10 – 15 % for ranking. Believe me.

For 15-20 day, regularly take these tests till last 2 days of exam. For last two days, normally prefer to avoid reading anything. If you can’t, don’t go for deep study and for new concept. Just revise 2-3 times daily every formula and tricks from a collection book normally provided by institutes (like compendium of YG Files).

These are a simple one year plan for repeaters. You may easily view. This method can’t be used by fresher. Last two phases could be used by those repeaters too who had joined any coaching.

If you find anything to share, feel free to do it. I am waiting for your comments.

(Now, I want to share with you my one year which I spend for IIT JEE preparation after 12th board. In appearing exam of IIT JEE I failed to clear IIT JEE screening. I scored 97. While 99 were cut-off marks. Missed screening test by a score less than what a question usually carry.

After all exams are over, I spent two months in enjoyment. I started preparation in July last week, my first mistake. Simultaneously, I joined a test series, my second mistake.

In two months of off-study, I had lost grip on many portions. Also, I usually get lost in test series’ tests held after every 21 days. I get confused whether to prepare for these tests or not, my third and biggest mistake. Overall, for whole year I just able to recover the level where I was at the time of last IIT JEE. In screening exam, I merely pass the test.

During screening and mains exam, I used the last phase discuss above. It helped me a lot and let me to secure around 10000 ranks in mains. Not to mention, I appeared for IIT JEE next year too using experience of the discussed year.)

I’m giving links to articles written by me on similar topics:

  1. Kota: Paradise for IIT JEE Aspirants
  2. How to Prepare for IIT JEE?
  3. Role of Coachings in IIT JEE selection
  4. Hopes Beyond IIT
  5. IIT JEE: What should be Strategy for Partial Droppers?

 

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Most Suitable Date for JEE (Main) Online Test

You must be knowing, the name of one of the most popular exam in India, AIEEE has been renamed this year to JEE (Main). The pattern for the exam is same. However, the importance of exam has changed a lot. You may read more about the whole exam JEE in my post What is JEE 2013?

how to choose a suitable date for JEE (Main)

Choose Your Date Wisely

AIEEE had introduced option to give the exam either online or offline (paper-pencil based) in 2010. There are various benefits of giving the test online. Like:

  • One can review and change the answer at any point of time
  • The above process can be done numerous number of times
  • No. of questions attempted or unattempted could be find instantly
  • Tougher or tricky questions could be marked for review later
  • Equal time is alloted to everyone
  • No disturbance during the exam for paper work
  • Don’t need any strategy for circling the answer with pencil
  • Flexibility to choose the exam date
  • It will save Rs. 300

If someone is comfortable with computers and can sit in front of computer screen for 3 hours continuously. It is strongly recommended to go for Online Test.

Now, I’m coming to the main point of this article. How to choose the most suitable date for JEE (Main) online test?

The answer to this question is not so easy. It will differ based on your willingness to appear for JEE (Advanced).

Date Selection

JEE (Advanced) is going to be conducted on 2nd June, 2013. JEE (Main) online test is scheduled between 8th April, 2013 to 25th April, 2013. If someone is appearing for JEE (Advanced), he needs more time for JEE (Advanced) preparation. Hence, he need to appear on the earliest suitable date for the exam. Keep no confusion, the bar of 150,000 students eligibility is not at all a test for the students who are serious for JEE (Advanced). So, don’t even think that you need good amount of time to be in top 150,000 students eligible to write JEE (Advanced). If you can’t get top 150,000 for JEE (Main), don’t waste your time for JEE (Advanced).

However, if someone is just going to appear for JEE (Main), not for JEE (Advanced), he need to choose the latest date of all. So, that he could concentrate well for both 12th board and JEE (Main).

Now, if you are willing to write JEE (Main) and JEE (Advanced). Don’t go for the First Day First Show. On the first two days there are chances of technical hitches during the exam. The invigilators and engineers at the test center try to familiarize themselves with the whole system of online test. Till the third day, the ambiance of test center becomes normal. Chances of hitches becomes quite less. Hence, it is recommended to choose the third day, 10th April, 2013 as your date for Online Test. However, this date is most suitable for morning slot. If you are willing to take the test in 2nd half, then go for 9th April, 2012 afternoon slot. Chances are very less of any technical problem on the second day afternoon slot. I will discuss about slot selection later.

If you are planning to appear for only JEE (Main) and you have to appear for 12th board also then choose latest dates viz 23rd or 24th April, 2013. This will give you a healthy gap for utmost preparation for JEE (Main). Plus, the pressure on your mind will be less. I didn’t recommended the last date as the invigilators would be taking this day lightly just as last working day before holidays. Remember, they would be busy with the exam for last 13 days continuously with two shifts of exams every day.

Slot Selection

Choosing the perfect slot for JEE (Main)

Don’t Get Stressed

Morning or afternoon slot plays vital role in your performance. Fundamentally, you must be knowing that the mind feels fresh in the morning hours. The thinking and analyzing capability is always higher in the morning. Overall, it is the best time to give your best shot. Remember, even if this would help you to solve just one extra question correctly. We are talking about a rank difference in hundreds to thousands. You have to give exam in the optimal state of time to deliver the best. The best from your capability means the best rank you can get in JEE (Main). However, morning or afternoon slot will not matter, if you train your body for the afternoon exam.

Those who are appearing just for JEE (Main) but are repeaters (not giving 12th board). The choice of date for you will depend on you only. As the date won’t matter for you. You might just feel relaxed from the exam pressure if you appear early. But, still if you need any suggestion, ask your query by the comment section below.

Read this article which will explain How to Prepare for JEE 2013 After Appearing for 12th Board

Do you need any help or any sort of suggestions? Just give a comment below. If you can’t comment below due to some reason. Send me mail at [email protected]

If you want me write about any topic related to JEE 2013. Feel free to contact me via mail or comment.

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