Search Results for: psa results for class 9 2014

The impact of economic reforms has been that rich people have become richer and poor people poorer

 

In 1991, when the foreign exchange reserves had reduced to such an extent that India could barely finance three weeks’ worth of imports. Economic reforms were introduced in Indian economy. Before 1991, India was closed for foreign companies. It was a period very much known as License Raj. During this period, up to 80 agencies had to be satisfied before a firm could be granted a license to produce and the state would decide what was produced, how much, at what price and what sources of capital were used. The government also prevented firms from knocking off workers or closing factories. Indian economic policy was influenced by the colonial experience. There was monopoly in many sectors by state owned enterprises. This was the period which encouraged the corruption and red tape system in India. The annual growth rate for India during 1950 – 1980 was around 3.5 % compared to 9 % in 2009.

During the national economic crisis of 1991, when India was on the verge of Bankrupt, Government of India decided to bring up several economic reforms. Then PM, Mr. Narshimha Rao, appointed Manmohan Singh as a special economic adviser to implement the reforms. These reforms were mainly focused on liberalizing foreign investment and privatization of loss incurring government corporations. Some latest results have revealed that the scope and pattern of these reforms in India’s foreign investment and external trade sectors followed the Chinese experience with external economic reforms.

The impact of these reforms were seen in just few years as the total foreign investment in India grew from a infinitesimal US $132 million in 1991-92 to $5.3 billion in 1995-96. In initial years of reform, 1991–1992, poverty increased in India slightly. But, later on number of people below poverty line decreased. And, a steep declined in number of person below poverty line in between 1993 to 1998 was seen. Currently, number of middle class in India is expected to be 300 million, which is expected to double by 2025 to 600 million. It is sure that as the economy of India will boom, new millionaire and billionaire will join the list. There will be new addition in the upper class list, mostly coming out of present middle class. Also, the 300 million new middle class people must come from non-other than lower class or poor people list. These trends are taken from the last 5-10 years data. So, the poor are quickly transforming in middle class with increase in their earnings. This shows that the impact of economic reform is helping poor to convert them into middle class. So, impact of economic reforms has not been that poor people have become poorer. But, yeah rich people have become richer.

With revolution in many sectors in India, GDP of India has showed a tremendous growth. Telecom sector is very much saturated in metropolitan and many urban cities. Now, new companies are aiming at rural area with immense network of towers coming around rural sectors. Obviously, this is going to strengthen rural economy. Till now, urban economy has played a major role in economic progress of India after the reforms. However, with improving the network of roads in rural areas and good communication, our villages are going to see sure success. This all is going to help the poor.

 

Role of Coachings in IIT JEE selection

Indian Institute of technology (IIT) are the most prestigious institutes of India. It’s the dream of every science students to study at IIT. One may get admission at any IIT after clearing a test organised by the all the IITs. It’s called IIT JEE. As there are many students dreaming to study at IIT or be an IITian. The competition is very tough to clear. Almost 350,000 students each year appear in IIT JEE. Out of which nearly 10000 students are selected. We can find coaching institutes every where which helps students to clear IIT JEE. It is a fact that coaching institutes for IIT JEE are more than double in number of total students selected in IIT JEE. So, the question arises naturally. Are these coaching institutes play any role in the selection for IIT JEE?

Coaching institutes for IIT JEE can be found at almost every corner of street in every town of India. Size and strength of students vary at these places. But, all have same purpose to give students guidance for clearing IIT JEE. No doubt many fail to produce even a single IITian in lifetime. A large number of these institutes teach without proper procedure. There are very kind of institutes. Institutes operating with one teacher and one classroom to institutes with branches in every part of the country. Tuition fees in these institutes also vary from institutes to institutes and city to city. We can say it is a business. Apart from collecting taxes from these institutes, government play no role to monitor the benefits of the students. There are no regulations at all. Any one can teach or cheat students with the dream to be future IITian. Let us see the role of coaching institutes in IIT JEE preparation.

We will discuss here role of various types of coaching institutes for various types of students. We will not excluding the dullest students from our group of students. As they are no where around IIT JEE. They should not waste their time for IIT JEE.

1. Big Institutes

In this category, we will discuss about institute which are well-known in every part of India. These institutes have branches in various city. They send a lot of students to IIT each year. Some well-known names are FIITJEE, Brilliant Tutorials (BT), Bansal Classes, Vidya Mandir, Apex Academy, Narayana, Chaitanya, Career Point, Resonance and Akash. These are some of the well-known names. FIITJEE, BT and Bansal Classes stands in front this row. They are renowned institutes which have given the most students to IIT. So, how does they help students to clear IIT JEE. Does they give them a syrup or tonic to drink or eat. No, they don’t. Let’s discuss how they give such a great results year after year.

BT and Bansal are old very institutes. They started and develop the coaching system for IIT JEE. One more name come in the list, Agrawal Classes. These institute since 80′s are teaching for IIT JEE. They develop a study material on the basis of 10th syllabus which could help the student to grasp the concept needed in the IIT JEE exam. In the beginning there were not many names in the market. So, it was easy for them to get quality students and guide them. As the quality students are with them. They produced good results each year.

Currently, these institutes recruit best teachers to guide the students along with good study material. They organize tests and doubt clearance session regularly. Also, they give students bunch of questions to solve after every concept is discussed. Institute concentrate on more and more practice and doubt clearance. On an average, in these institutes students solve 3-4 times more questions than in regular studies. So, by constant practice and doubt clearance, students gain pace and accuracy. This helps them to clear IIT JEE. They don’t have to think a lot about preparation strategy and other tension. Institutes generally take care of every problem. The institute’s think tank keeps a keen eye on the process which help the student in selection. As the institute have money power. They spend it to test their methods and improve if needed to change. They have the best team of teachers. They generally get early signs of changes that could be possible in coming IIT JEE exam. Overall, their methods helps students to develop a bit. No doubt.

Lets see how in the present time these big institutes are for different IQ level students. For IIT JEE, lets see students with intelligence level as intelligent, average, below average and dullest. As we have said earlier we will not discuss about dullest students.

A. Intelligent Students:

These students are those who have the highest chance to be an IITian. In any class of 50, one may find 5-10 students from this category. They are born intelligent and many are laborious too. By proper guidance of these institutes. These people develop themselves to solve the toughest and trickiest questions with ease. They secure high ranks with the help of these institutes.

B. Average Students:

Students in this category are mainly those who are either laborious but not intelligent else intelligent but not laborious. Also, those who are a bit of both intelligent and laborious come in this sections. These students need encouragement and proper guidance to make it to IIT. These institutes give them lots of question to solve. By the practice, environment and luck many students of this group with lower ranks make their way to IIT. Yeah luck is also a factor for them to clear IIT JEE. Even slight mistake in the preparation could cost them an IIT seat.

C. Below Average Students:

This category of students too gets some benefit from these institutes. They are not IIT material. Also, not much good for low-level exams. But, these institutes with lots of practice to them, helps them to clear regional exams. That’s high achievement for them.

Remember, I’ve pointed out that in every aspect these institutes are beneficial for the students. Then, why not every students take admission in these institutes. The reason is simple. They are very much costly too. Yeah, these institutes have a very high fees. Not possible for every one to pay in a country like us. They have full AC class rooms. Their high paying teachers can’t teach in non-AC class rooms. Also, many students who study there are AC addicted. So, they have to keep up an AC environment. Even in some circumstance they give scholarship to poor students. That’s few and selected students. That can’t help everyone. So,lower middle class students who are the most in numbers go for other sort of low fees or local institutes .

2. Local Institutes

By local institute, I mean those institutes which are popular but just in few towns. Like Paradise Institute, Nutan Institute in Patna; Prerna Classes in Tatanagar; JSR Classes in Varanashi; Bakliwal Tutorials in Pune. Every city or town have many such institute which are popular locally. Some them who have big business and some have just. They generally don’t have a regular think tank team to develop strategy. Administration is just in hand of one or two people who are teachers too. Not all but some of them provided printed study material. But, they usually don’t organize weekly test. Daily question’s hand outs. Yeah some of them do. Teachers in these institutes are almost all good. But, due to lack of strategy. They don’t work out as a team.

Lets see how they give benefit to the students.

A. Intelligent Students:

They have the best chance to get in IIT. But, due to lack of strategy and practice. They don’t make it to top ranks in IIT JEE. If we look at the selection every year in IIT. In top 200 these institutes have very less share. Instead of the fact that they are much more in numbers. The reason is simple they lack to develop students. Those who gets selected are due to just guidance and intelligence. Some of them who get right teachers and are extra laborious with intelligence make it to top ranks. But, still all this combination can be replaced with a common word Luck. If the student is lucky they make it to top 100 or 200. Else generally, they fill higher ranks of IIT JEE.

B. Average Students:

Usually average students from these institutes fail to clear IIT JEE. They clear other exams. But, IIT looks far from their reach from such institute. Reason can be seen clearly. There is not a strong administration who have plans for everyone. Institute give no guidance to teacher to take care of everyone. Teachers too like to be more around the sharp brain. They give less extra time for clearing various doubts of these kind of students. With doubts in their mind these students fail to solve the tricky questions of IIT JEE. Many of them secure ranks in regional or other exams.

C. Below Average Students:

Students in this category hardly make any impact in competitive exams from these institutes. Some of the lucky ones gets selected in regional exams.

3. Subject based Tuition

This is the category in which comes subject specific teacher. Institute which teach only one subjects. Actually, these institutes are run by a single teacher. As one single can’t teach all the three subjects. Some even teach sub-subject specific . Mainly, we see them in Chemistry. Teachers who teach Organic avoid inorganic. Some time they just teach organic. Sometime they teach all, but focus only on one of the favorite.

This is the most clustered category of all. Most number of misguided students study in this category. There is no one who makes strategy for them. The teachers take care of just their subject. As there is no coördination between other subject’s teachers. It’s very hard to study inter-related concept. Especially, those portions of Chemistry and Physics which depends on Mathematics. Also, students face timing problem. They have to adjust the time schedule for all three subjects. Not just that, as the classes of each subject have different teacher. They have to run from one place to other for classes. This exhausts the students. Also, it kills valuable time. Sometimes, tiredness causes losing interest in study.

This method of coaching is no doubt beneficial if we consider money. But, else success only depends on luck. It is most widely faced problem. Not all three subjects teacher are liked by the students. For IIT JEE, all three part should be balanced. So, even though one finds best teacher for Math. There is no chance of success, if one can’t find good teacher for Physics and Chemistry too.

The quality of education system is most damaged by this category. Any one who wants to teach for IIT JEE can open institute and misguide others. It is true that the best teachers of India teach through this system. But, it is also true that the number of worst teacher is more than good ones. So, students gets exploited in this system most.

Lets see how this group affects students:

A. Intelligent Students:

All depends on luck. If luck helps and students gets tension free, good teachers in every subject, students can clear JEE. But, that’s the rarest case. Only few are lucky to get all three teachers good. If the student is most brilliant one then only nothing can stop him to get selected. Else miserable chance of selection. Yeah students get selected in various regional or other exams. But, IIT is far from them. Also, one more important point, there is very less hope to get good ranks in IIT JEE. There is no good practice for the students. Some teachers try to give more and more practice, rest is miserable.

B. Average students:

If luck is not with the student very little hope. Even if luck is with students that they get all three good teachers. Almost no hope for IIT JEE. Just a bit hope for regional level exams.

C. Below average students:

Very less chance for these students to get any thing from this system of coaching.

4. Institutes in Kota, Rajasthan

I have discussed about these institutes in detail in my last post. Click Here.

Remarks:

  • It should be you who should decide in which category of student you come.
  • All above is bullshit, if one is laborious and works hard. Laborious and hard-working student can change all the law. So, be laborious nothing will matter much.

I’m giving links to articles written by me on similar topics:

  1. Kota: Paradise for IIT JEE Aspirants
  2. How to Prepare for IIT JEE?
  3. Hopes Beyond IIT
  4. IIT JEE: What should be the strategy for repeaters?
  5. IIT JEE: What should be Strategy for Partial Droppers?

 

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Should FDI be Allowed in Higher Education

 

The ‘India Vision 2020′ envisages the transformation of India into a knowledge superpower. To achieve this vision, the higher education sector has to play a key role. At present India is producing highest number of doctors and engineers every year. But, if one considers the quality and quantity of higher education in India. It is worse. In US and UK, percentage of enrolment in higher education is 82.4 and 60.1 respectively. In India, despite recent increment due to private players, current enrolment is merely 12 %. Even South East Asian countries have higher enrolment rate like 31% in Philippines, 27% in Malaysia, 19% in Thailand and 13% in China. According to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), public spending on higher education in India is merely US $400 per students. If we consider public spending of US on higher education, it is $9629. It may be argued that the spending of India could not be compared with that of US. However, even other developing nations like Brazil, China or Russia have much higher public expenditure per student, in excess of $1000.

India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States. The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 13 institutes which are of national importance. Most of these institutions are public funded. Some of these institutions have been globally acclaimed. However, India has failed to produce world class universities like Harvard, Stanford, Oxford, Cambridge or MIT.

The state of higher education is very bad in India. The education system in India is often criticised for being Rote Learning, rather than problem solving. The status of teaching in most of the public run colleges in India is ill. If we see the situation of colleges in metros and cities, it may come under average level. But, the situation of colleges in small cities is very bad. The main aim for the students here is to get certificate. Corruption and negligence could be easily found in the examination conducted by these colleges. Some private universities have started operations in India. But, most of them are not giving the quality, they are for money making. In the recent years, many of the new private institutions have opened in India. But, most of them are for engineering and B-schools. The scenario is this that India is producing almost 750,000 engineers and 100,000 MBA graduates every year. But, if we see the skill in this army of graduates only 20-30% of them are doing the particular course due to interest or skill. Rest of them are there just because it is going to give them good jobs.

India in the process of becoming a developed nation needs to be technologically independent. Right now, India is dependent on other nations for technology. We are not spending a lot on Research and Development. In fact, if we see the track record in many sectors we are dependent on technology imports. Like India is the largest importer in the world for defence equipment. For the current 3G mobile technology, India is looking towards China and US for imports of machinery. India needs to spend a lot on research work. But, the atmosphere here is not research oriented. Even, in IITs, many professors find it hard to get funds sanctioned for researches.

Every year nearly 0.4 million Indians go abroad for higher studies spending approximately $ 12bn. This leads to not only loss of foreign exchange, but also ‘Brain Drain’, as most of these rarely comes back to India after completing their courses. The primary reason for a large number of students seeking professional education abroad is lack of capacity in Indian Institution. There is no doubt that the situation in public universities in India is not so good. Also, with increasing enrollment in higher education, it is not possible for the government to provide higher education on its own. But, the private institutions are themselves sick. Many don’t have experience and many are trying to just gain money without quality. Foreign investment in this field will not only check brain drain, it will also help to balance the demand supply ratio. It will develop competitiveness among private universities to deliver better quality. It will also generate employment and result in inflow of money instead of outflow. Further, the infrastructure will improve. There will be better scope for research as foreign university have different methodology to run and generate revenues. They are more research based universities. Plus India may move towards practical study based learning rather than rote learning. Other than that, India could develop itself as a provider of higher education for developing nations.

At present India is allowing 100% FDI in higher education through automatic sector. But, still no university have established a campus here, due to a large no. of guidelines and regulation. Also, many rules are unclear. Indian government is trying to pass a bill, The Foreign Educational Institutions Bill, in the parliament to directly allow 100% FDI in higher education. Right now 106 institutions are running programmes in India with collaboration with foreign universities. But, only 2 out of 106 are approved by AICTE. Indian government does not allow foreign universities to award any separate degree. It could only provide dual degree with collaboration with local institutions. Currently, many degrees given by these foreign universities are not even recognized in their own countries. Most of the universities which have tie ups with local institutions are small private universities in their own countries. If The Foreign Educational Institutional Bill will be passed, it will not only allow foreign universities to set-up campuses and award degrees in India, but simultaneous facilitate Indian government regulation of their operations.

The purpose of the bill is to regulate entry, operation and quality of education by the foreign universities. The bill will allow them to earn the status of Deemed University, which in turn will make them come under the domain of University grant commission (UGC). The foreign university then have to invest at least 51% of the total expenditure for such establishments. There will be large amount of money allocated only for the development of higher education. Plus scientific research will not be in the stage of shortage of money.

Features of the Foreign Educational Institutions Bill:

  • No foreign institution can provide degree to Indian student unless such institution is confirmed as Foreign Educational Provider by Indian Government
  • At least twenty years of establishment in its own country
  • Have to maintain a fund of at least 500 million rupees
  • Quality of education, curriculum, method of imparting and the faculty employed will be in accordance to guidelines of UGC
  • At max 70% of the income raised from the fund can be utilized in the development of institution in India and rest should be added to the fund. No part could be used in any other purpose other than growth and development of the institution established by it in India
  • Institution has to publish prospectus writing clearly about fee structure, refund norms and amount, number of seats, condition of eligibility with min and max age, detail of faculty, process of admission, min pay payable to each category of teachers and staff, infrastructure and other facilities, syllabus, rules and regulations, etc. at least sixty day prior to date of commencement of admission
  • In case of violation of any guidelines a penalty of min 10 million and max 50 million rupees along with tuition fees should be refunded to the student
  • Any foreign institution not confirmed by Indian government as Foreign Education Provider which is awarding any certificate to Indian students should submit a report regarding course to the commission

The academics, educationists and politicians are sharply divided on whether this will be a good move for India or not. As till now the experience with the foreign universities is not so good. Foreign investors in higher education have so far brought just commercial products, and may be in the future too, will bring copyrighted courses and workshops modules in order to make money. There courses will be less in accordance with the need of the Indian students or requirements of Indian science and research. Also, questions are raised about the Intellectual Property Rights, who will own the IPR? How the benefits of any research will be shared? Also, India should choose the area in which investments be invited. We should invite investments in the field where we have something to learn, where we need to build ourselves not necessarily where we are leaders ourselves. For instance, India is already doing top class research on stem cells and could collaborate with other top class institutions, but not necessarily invite FDI in this field.

Right now India discriminates its students on the basis of caste. A student’s scholarship mainly depends on his/her caste. Foreign institutions will find it hard to get inferior quality on the basis of caste. A scholarship program for economically backward students could be facilitated, but caste will be problematic for them.

The main concerns with the Bill are as follows:

  • The bill envisages regulation of fees to tackle commercialization of education which will definitely deter entry of quality foreign universities, reared in an environment where commercial success and good service quality go hand in hand.
  • It provides for government monitoring on admissions criteria which again might deter entry by high quality foreign universities which believe in using their own set of criteria.

A clear cut government regulatory policy which balances the need for freedom of foreign education providers with national interest is necessary. In other words, the accent should be on optimal regulation and the avoidance of over or under regulation. Also, Indian universities either public or private should be improved in order to compete on the same level with foreign giants.

If we see the approach of Indian government at present is to gain good quality education environment by suppressing profit motives. But, actually the correct approach should be attainment of high quality with, in accordance, profit motives. If India wants to attract world class universities in India it should have to give some liberty to foreign universities too. It should not look like exploitation of foreign university just for the sake of our profit. We should use profit as a channel to raise the quality of education.

We could take example of Singapore in the matter of framing the policy for foreign investment in scientific research. Singapore allows only world-class institutions to enter, and that only when they bring their own money. For instance the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), a leading technical institution in the US, has collaboration with the National University of Singapore. From Australia, a country with which it other-wise has close contacts on several fronts, it is only the University of New South Wales, considered a premier institution, which was permitted to establish a campus solely on the basis of its own investments. As a result of its policies on foreign investment in education, Singapore has successfully achieved two goals, one to make itself an educational destination for neighbors in Asia who can now go to world-class institutions in Singapore rather than go to Australia or the US; and two, to bring in top-quality programs and skills to upgrade their own research.

If we look at the problem India is facing in development of higher education, one may say that FDI are being allowed just because we don’t have enough money to spend on this area. But, the problems are others too which FDI will focus. FDI in higher education will solve the problem of enrollment rate as we are in a situation of less supply high demand. Indian money and talent going abroad will come in check. India will become educational hub for at least neighboring countries. Infrastructure will improve. Some new methods and technology will be used in teaching. Also, it might happen that India may develop one of its own world class universities. Lastly, India needs to fill the technological lag as fast as it can to compete with China.

There are a lot of fears regarding the future of FDI investment in higher education. But, all in all on larger scale, it is going to benefit India. With better guidelines and rules, we can overcome the minute problems we assume may arise. But, in no way FDI in higher education should be discouraged. Foreign Direct investments should be allowed in India.

Management Education is only for the Rich

 

Last year, I sat for the CAT exam for the first time. On the very day, I reached at the exam center a bit early than the reporting time. Other aspirants were coming to take the CAT. Waiting at the gate I was observing almost all the candidates arriving to take the test for that slot. I found a very different scenario than that I used to see at the exam center during IIT JEE. Most of the girls were coming on a car with parents or siblings. Few girls were coming on a two wheeler and, very few by auto. Boys were basically coming mainly on bikes with friends. There was huge number of vehicles compared with just around hundred candidates. But, at the IIT JEE center very few people used to come on car, few with bike and mostly by auto. The trend was very easy to understand that management courses attract upper middle class more than lower middle class or poor.

Management education is getting expensive day by day. Some IIMs have increased their fees to more than 12 lakhs. Nearly, all the top 30 institutes have a fees range of 7 lakhs – 15 lakhs. This is creating a huge pressure on the aspirants. Those whose family income is not even 3-4 lakhs, how can they think to study in these institutes on their own. There are institutes who are offering management course at even less than 2 lakhs. However, most of them have poor placement scene. Who would prefer to start their career at less than Rs. 20,000 if they can get starting salary more than Rs. 50,000?

The only hope for the lower middle class or poor student is bank loan. But, there are a lot of requirements for the banks for giving a loan. Other than for the case of meritorious students seeking loan for prestigious institutes, banks ask for an account in their bank, active for at least past six months. Plus, one needs to submit an insurance policy of the candidate. One most important process is to submit the annual simple interest incurred on the amount withdrawn for loan till you get the job or six months after passing the course, whichever comes earlier. These are few requirements for applying for a bank loan. But, still it may happen that processing a bank loan took a long time.

Just suppose a person takes a loan for taking admission to a B-school with yearly expenditure of around Rs. 300,000. So, yearly interest to be paid to the bank will be around Rs. 36,000 – 40,000 for the first year. During second year this will be just around double at around Rs. 75,000. This amount is to be generally paid by the parent. Which in no way is a small amount for many middle class families? These amounts do not include the basic expense for a student, like mobile, conveyance, clothing, etc. Just imagine the burden on a student’s family.

Management institute seeks intelligent candidates having good communication skill in English and who is smart. The best institutes focuses on those candidates who is well-balanced with all these features. Even one of these is a bit less. Your chance is little to get an admission letter. As English is not first language for most of the lower middle class or poor student, neither the surrounding in which they live gives stress on learning English, the students from these class are generally weak in English. One needs a good encouraging surrounding to develop the English to the level required by B-schools. A good option for this is to join a good coaching to get students seeking to clear management entrance. But, this needs money. Most of the institutes have fees around Rs. 15,000 to Rs. 40,000 plus other expenses.

At every step, non-rich students face problem in getting management education. Even if someone is extra talented, there are big obstacles for them also. But, for the rich most of the steps are easier with the money. Therefore, in my opinion “management education is only for the rich”.

 

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