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Share Market Terminology: Part 2

<<<< Share Market Terminology: Part 1

1.     NASDAQ

The NASDAQ Stock Market, also known as the NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange located in New York City. “NASDAQ” originally stood for “National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Systems,” but the exchange’s official stance is that the acronym is obsolete. It is the largest electronic screen-based equity securities trading market in the United States and fourth largest by market capitalization in the world. As of January 13, 2011, there are 2,872 listings. The NASDAQ has more trading volume than any other electronic stock exchange in the world.

NASDAQ has three indices; NASDAQ Composite, NASDAQ-100 and NASDAQ Biotechnology Index. Its market capitalization is US$3.08 trillion (Aug 2010).

2.     Blue Chip

A blue-chip stock is stock in a company with a national reputation for quality, reliability and the ability to operate profitably in good times and bad. The most popular index which follows blue chips is the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a price-weighted average of 30 blue-chip stocks that are generally the leaders in their industry.

3.     Book Value

In accounting, book value or carrying value is the value of an asset according to its balance sheet account balance. For assets, the value is based on the original cost of the asset less any depreciation, amortization or impairment costs made against the asset. Traditionally, a company’s book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities. However, in practice, depending on the source of the calculation, book value may variably include goodwill, intangible assets, or both.

4.     Market Capitalization

Market capitalization (often market cap) is a measurement of size of a business enterprise (corporation) equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding (shares that have been authorized, issued, and purchased by investors) of a publicly traded company. As owning stock represents ownership of the company, including all its equity, capitalization could represent the public opinion of a company’s net worth and is a determining factor in stock valuation. Likewise, the capitalization of stock markets or economic regions may be compared to other economic indicators. The total market capitalization of all publicly traded companies in the world was US$51.2 trillion in January 2007 and rose as high as US$57.5 trillion in May 2008 before dropping below US$50 trillion in August 2008 and slightly above US$40 trillion in September 2008.

5.     P/E Ratio

The P/E ratio (price-to-earnings ratio) of a stock (also called its “P/E”, or simply “multiple”) is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share. P/E reflects the capital structure of the company in question. P/E is a financial ratio used for valuation: a higher P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio has units of years, which can be interpreted as “number of years of earnings to pay back purchase price”, ignoring the time value of money. In other words, P/E ratio shows current investor demand for a company share.

6.     Spread

The difference between the price paid for a bond (the bid) and the price at which it is offered to an investor (the offer).

7.     Preference Share

Capital stock which provides a specific dividend that is paid before any dividends are paid to common stock holders, and which takes precedence over common stock in the event of liquidation. Like common stock, preference shares represent partial ownership in a company, although preferred stock shareholders do not enjoy any of the voting rights of common stockholders. Also unlike common stock, preference shares pay a fixed dividend that does not fluctuate, although the company does not have to pay this dividend if it lacks the financial ability to do so. The main benefit to owning preference shares are that the investor has a greater claim on the company’s assets than common stockholders. Preferred shareholders always receive their dividends first and, in the event the company goes bankrupt, preferred shareholders are paid off before common stockholders.

8.     Equity share

Equity shares are those shares which are ordinary in the course of company’s business. They are also called as ordinary shares. These shareholders do not enjoy preference regarding payment of dividend and repayment of capital. Equity shareholders are paid dividend out of the profits made by a company. Higher the profits, higher will be the dividend and lower the profits, lower will be the dividend.

9.     Convertible Preference Share

These are preferred issues that the holders can exchange for a predetermined number of the company’s common stock. This exchange can occur at any time the investor chooses regardless of the current market price of the common stock. It is a one way deal so one cannot convert the common stock back to preferred stock.

10. Debenture

The term is used for a medium- to long-term debt instrument used by large companies to borrow money. In some countries the term is used interchangeably with bond, loan stock or note.

Debentures are generally freely transferable by the debenture holder. Debenture holders have no rights to vote in the company’s general meetings of shareholders, but they may have separate meetings or votes e.g. on changes to the rights attached to the debentures. The interest paid to them is a charge against profit in the company’s financial statements.

11. Mutual Fund

An open-ended fund operated by an investment company which raises money from shareholders and invests in a group of assets, in accordance with a stated set of objectives. mutual funds raise money by selling shares of the fund to the public, much like any other type of company can sell stock in itself to the public. Mutual funds then take the money they receive from the sale of their shares (along with any money made from previous investments) and use it to purchase various investment vehicles, such as stocks, bonds and money market instruments. In return for the money they give to the fund when purchasing shares, shareholders receive an equity position in the fund and, in effect, in each of its underlying securities. For most mutual funds, shareholders are free to sell their shares at any time, although the price of a share in a mutual fund will fluctuate daily, depending upon the performance of the securities held by the fund. Benefits of mutual funds include diversification and professional money management. Mutual funds offer choice, liquidity, and convenience, but charge fees and often require a minimum investment. A closed-end fund is often incorrectly referred to as a mutual fund, but is actually an investment trust. There are many types of mutual funds, including aggressive growth fund, asset allocation fund, balanced fund, blend fund, bond fund, capital appreciation fund, clone fund, closed fund, crossover fund, equity fund, fund of funds, global fund, growth fund, growth and income fund, hedge fund, income fund, index fund, international fund, money market fund, municipal bond fund, prime rate fund, regional fund, sector fund, specialty fund, stock fund, and tax-free bond fund.

12. Open-end Mutual Fund

A fund operated by an investment company which raises money from shareholders and invests in a group of assets, in accordance with a stated set of objectives. Open-end funds raise money by selling shares of the fund to the public, much like any other type of company which can sell stock in itself to the public. Mutual funds then take the money they receive from the sale of their shares (along with any money made from previous investments) and use it to purchase various investment vehicles, such as stocks, bonds and money market instruments. In return for the money they give to the fund when purchasing shares, shareholders receive an equity position in the fund and, in effect, in each of its underlying securities. For most open-end funds, shareholders are free to sell their shares at any time, although the price of a share in an open-end fund will fluctuate daily, depending upon the performance of the securities held by the fund. Benefits of open-end funds include diversification and professional money management. Open-end funds offer choice, liquidity, and convenience, but charge fees and often require a minimum investment.

13. Closed-end Mutual Fund

A fund with a fixed number of shares outstanding, and one which does not redeem shares the way a typical mutual fund does. Closed-end funds behave more like stock than open-end funds: closed-end funds issue a fixed number of shares to the public in an initial public offering, after which time shares in the fund are bought and sold on a stock exchange, and they are not obligated to issue new shares or redeem outstanding shares as open-end funds are. The price of a share in a closed-end fund is determined entirely by market demand, so shares can either trade below their net asset value (“at a discount”) or above it (“at a premium”).

14. Asset Management Company (AMC)

An Asset Management Company (AMC) is an investment management firm that invests the pooled funds of retail investors in securities in line with the stated investment objectives. For a fee, the investment company provides more diversification, liquidity, and professional management consulting service than is normally available to individual investors.

The diversification of portfolio is done by investing in such securities which are inversely correlated to each other. They collect money from investors by way of floating various mutual fund schemes.

15. Front End Load

A sales charge paid when an individual buys an investment, such as a mutual fund, limited partnership, annuity, or insurance policy. The load is clubbed with the first payment made by an investor, so the total initial payment is higher than the later payments. The purpose of a load is to cover administrative expenses and transaction costs and sometimes to discourage asset turnover.

16. Back End Load

A sales charge or commission paid when an individual sells an investment, such as a mutual fund or an annuity, intended to discourage withdrawals.

17. Company

A company is a form of business organization. It is a collection of individuals and physical assets with a common focus and an aim of gaining profits. This collection exists in Law and therefore a company is considered a “Legal Person”.

18. Common Seal

A common seal (sometimes referred to as the corporate seal or company seal) is an official seal used by a company. Company seals were predominantly used by companies in common law jurisdictions, although in modern times, most countries have abrogated the use of seals.

Traditionally, the seal was of some legal significance because the affixing of the seal signified that the document was the act and deed of the company, whereas when a document was merely signed by a director, then that was deemed to be an act carried out on behalf of the company by its agents, which was subject to applicable restrictions and limitations under the ordinary law of agency.

Corporate seals are generally only used for two purposes by corporations today:

Documents which need to be executed as deeds (as opposed to simple contracts), may be executed under the company’s common seal

Certain corporate documents, for example share certificates are often issued under the company seal (and some countries required that share certificates be issued under the common seal)

19. Company Secretary

A company secretary is a senior position in a private company or public organization, normally in the form of a managerial position or above. In the United States it is known as a corporate secretary.

The Company Secretary is responsible for the efficient administration of a company, particularly with regard to ensuring compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements and for ensuring that decisions of the Board of Directors are implemented.

Despite the name, the role is not a clerical or secretarial one in the usual sense. The company secretary ensures that an organization complies with relevant legislation and regulation, and keeps board members informed of their legal responsibilities. Company secretaries are the company’s named representative on legal documents, and it is their responsibility to ensure that the company and its directors operate within the law. It is also their responsibility to register and communicate with shareholders, to ensure that dividends are paid and to maintain company records, such as lists of directors and shareholders, and annual accounts.

20. Subsidiary Company

A subsidiary, in business matters, is an entity that is controlled by a separate higher entity. The controlled entity is called a company, corporation, or limited liability company; and in some cases can be a government or state-owned enterprise, and the controlling entity is called its parent (or the parent company).

A parent company does not have to be the larger or “more powerful” entity; it is possible for the parent company to be smaller than a subsidiary, or the parent may be larger than some or all of its subsidiaries (if it has more than one). The parent and the subsidiary do not necessarily have to operate in the same locations, or operate the same businesses, but it is also possible that they could conceivably be competitors in the marketplace. Also, because a parent company and a subsidiary are separate entities, it is entirely possible for one of them to be involved in legal proceedings, bankruptcy, tax delinquency, indictment and/or under investigation, while the other is not.

The most common way that control of a subsidiary is achieved, is through the ownership of shares in the subsidiary by the parent. These shares give the parent the necessary votes to determine the composition of the board of the subsidiary, and so exercise control. This gives rise to the common presumption that 50% plus one share is enough to create a subsidiary. There are, however, other ways that control can come about, and the exact rules both as to what control is needed, and how it is achieved, can be complex. A subsidiary may itself have subsidiaries, and these, in turn, may have subsidiaries of their own. A parent and all its subsidiaries together are called a “group”, although this term can also apply to cooperating companies and their subsidiaries with varying degrees of shared ownership.

Subsidiaries are separate, distinct legal entities for the purposes of taxation and regulation. For this reason, they differ from divisions, which are businesses fully integrated within the main company, and not legally or otherwise distinct from it.

Note

This list is being compiled using definitions provided at various sources. I tried my best to give the best general explanation of all the term. If any term need correction or improvement in its explanation, please use the comment section to do so. I will look through it.

IIT JEE: What should be the strategy for repeaters?

IIT is a dream for many students. Many had waited 4-5 years to crack IIT JEE. Some even spent few years in other college, and then came to IIT without any tension about year loss. But, since 2006, IIT JEE has taken few steps to filter genuine quality from repeaters.

IIT JEE committee in 2006 changes few eligibility rules for IIT JEE. These changes allow only those who have passed the qualifying exam not more than one year back. Simply we can say. Maximum two attempts are allowed for IIT JEE to any students.

Normally students, who are not both lucky and brilliant simultaneously, fail to mark an impression in first attempt of IIT JEE. I’m pointing at lucky and brilliant both. Even brilliance can’t guarantee you to be an IITian in first shot. There are lots of complications. Like you have to cover the syllabus in right time, you have to face board exams just few days back of IIT JEE, you have to quickly switch to IIT JEE syllabus after board exam. Not to say all these needs proper timing. Many loose the preparation at last steps not due to brilliance. But, due to so much complications and lack of proper guidance. Just before IIT JEE, many lose their chance to get selected. So, it needs luck with brilliance to pass IIT JEE in first shot.

I will discuss here exactly how you should prepare if you had failed in first appearance of IIT JEE. What should be the strategy? How you should study? When is the right time for pace? When you should join test series? When your revision should start? Should you join any coaching or home preparation is best? I will discuss all these points here. Also, if you want any point to be added by me raise your voice. Use comments section.

First of all, let’s decide whether you need coaching or not. Note it down that you should be associated in IIT JEE coaching once in your three-year duration of IIT JEE preparation. If you have taken any professional coaching for IIT JEE up till 12th. Now, go for home preparation. If you were not associated with coaching during 12th or 11th especially for IIT JEE, it is a good time for you to do so. Do not forget. Coaching is very important to know most about IIT JEE. Especially those who are average do well after coaching. (See this article to know how coaching help different students in IIT JEE preparation.)

One thing I want to urge all. If you think that there is some chance for you to crack IIT JEE. But, less chance in first shot. Then, go for IIT JEE coaching during 11th and 12th. Don’t leave the professional help for post-board duration. Coaching gives you a lot. But, it takes away your energy and also need much mental and physical work. Students sometime get lost in mental and physical strain they undergo during coaching. Also, you will become much more mature about IIT JEE after taking coaching. So, you could study in right way in your final shot. I will discuss more about it later in some other article.

If you are thinking to go for coaching after board exams, then, remember to give good time for self-study. Don’t get lost in assignments and hand-outs provided by your coaching. Solve them. But, also give appropriate time for IIT JEE text-books and standard problem book. Remove confusions related with concepts using full help of coaching system. IIT JEE concentrates more at those points which are loop holes for students. You can do better if you keep in mind above mentioned points. These are enough for you. Remember, coaching will take away most of your time. Still you have to work-hard restlessly.

Now, if you had already taken coaching during 12th or don’t want to join any coaching. These are for you.

After IIT JEE exam or exam period gets over. Don’t waste much time in enjoyment. Re-start your preparation after a gap of not more than 7 days.

When you start the preparation, first go for little analyze. Try to figure out which chapters need improvement and which are your best portions. Also, which book to follow? In this one year of preparation you should concentrate more on clarifying concept by solving more and more problem. Problem should be solved by books which have IIT JEE sort of problems. I would suggest go for Arihant books in Physics and Mathematics. For chemistry, Arihant books are not so much good. Try Schaum series or others like O P Tondon or O P Agrawal for physical chemistry. For Organic strictly go for Solomons & Fryhle. It is best book for Organic chemistry for IIT JEE. Use this book with its solution book. For Inorganic use Arihant. Memorize every reaction type. Go for problems. The more regularly you solve the problems. The more you will improve in Organic or Inorganic Chemistry. Not to mention, not just above books are only best books in the market. But, yeah these are most tested.

If you have material of some top institute of IIT JEE. Refer them too while reading concept from above mentioned books. Try to solve the variety of problems available. The more you get familiar with problem more you will solve the problem in IIT JEE. Remember IIT JEE don’t check your speed. You will have enough time to solve problems to secure good rank in IIT JEE. So, concentrate on practicing more and more problem. Required speed will be acquired just by practice.

Now, I’m going to tell you a very important trick you should use which would help you later in revision. While going through problems, mark the problems which are unsolved, hard or tricky. Even those which you solved, but you want to see them while revision. On an average you will get 10-15 marked questions in 100 you will attempt. Use these questions when you revise. This simple technique will boost up your revision time 2-3 folds. Normally, while revision students get confused from where to start revision. But, with this trick in use, you can just refer theory quickly from somewhere (like Brilliant tutorial provides YG File compendium or FIITJEE provides some books with GMP). Then, go through the problems you had marked earlier. Remember, it’s on to you which problem to mark. Don’t mark just hard problem. Instead, mark the problems in a way which could help you to revise in less time later. So, after solving chapters go through marked problems and see whether you can revise with those problems.

Normally, you should close first phase of detailed study, up till December to January. Then, phase 2, revision by above mentioned way till 20 – 25 days prior to exam date. For phase 2, if time permits you could also use GMP or YG Files. In last phase, solve simulator tests or sample tests provided by many institutes free or on some charge. Buy them and solve. In between, nearly in Nov-Dec each institute starts their test series for IIT JEE. Join a good test series. Sit for it regularly. But, never spend time to prepare for test series. Not even on day prior to test date. If you desperately want to read a little, give 1hr -2hr on last night before test series’ test date. You should not spend much time on test series preparation.

Sample tests should be taken by you in the same time duration as for IIT JEE exam. Like this year schedule is Paper 1: 9:00 AM – 12:00 noon and Paper 2: 2:00 PM -5:00 PM. Sit for tests each day at 9:00 AM sharp. Use chair and table for giving exams. Your body should adjust to exam schedule. Between 12:00 to 2:00 test your score for Paper 1. Afterwards, look through solution for incorrect answers. Know where you missed. Then, take your lunch. Lastly, relax a bit. Again at sharp 2:00 PM sit for Paper 2. After exam check your marks. Go through solutions for incorrect questions. Try to analyze where you are failing. In which portion you score most negative marks. If a bit concept update is required go for it. But, don’t go deep study.

After test session, relax for an hour or so. Watch TV. Go to friends home. Else sleep.

At night, go for unsolved problems. These are the problems which are very much similar to IIT JEE type of problems. Many of these problems could be faced by you first time. Try to solve them using all books and materials you have available. This is the last time to increase your rank in IIT JEE. More sincerely you solve more your rank will improve. This single step could give you a gain of around 10 – 15 % for ranking. Believe me.

For 15-20 day, regularly take these tests till last 2 days of exam. For last two days, normally prefer to avoid reading anything. If you can’t, don’t go for deep study and for new concept. Just revise 2-3 times daily every formula and tricks from a collection book normally provided by institutes (like compendium of YG Files).

These are a simple one year plan for repeaters. You may easily view. This method can’t be used by fresher. Last two phases could be used by those repeaters too who had joined any coaching.

If you find anything to share, feel free to do it. I am waiting for your comments.

(Now, I want to share with you my one year which I spend for IIT JEE preparation after 12th board. In appearing exam of IIT JEE I failed to clear IIT JEE screening. I scored 97. While 99 were cut-off marks. Missed screening test by a score less than what a question usually carry.

After all exams are over, I spent two months in enjoyment. I started preparation in July last week, my first mistake. Simultaneously, I joined a test series, my second mistake.

In two months of off-study, I had lost grip on many portions. Also, I usually get lost in test series’ tests held after every 21 days. I get confused whether to prepare for these tests or not, my third and biggest mistake. Overall, for whole year I just able to recover the level where I was at the time of last IIT JEE. In screening exam, I merely pass the test.

During screening and mains exam, I used the last phase discuss above. It helped me a lot and let me to secure around 10000 ranks in mains. Not to mention, I appeared for IIT JEE next year too using experience of the discussed year.)

I’m giving links to articles written by me on similar topics:

  1. Kota: Paradise for IIT JEE Aspirants
  2. How to Prepare for IIT JEE?
  3. Role of Coachings in IIT JEE selection
  4. Hopes Beyond IIT
  5. IIT JEE: What should be Strategy for Partial Droppers?

 

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Hang the Rapist: Why the Rapist Should not be Hanged?

Hang the rapist“Hang the Rapist”. We are hearing the growing demand for amendment in the law which would enable death penalty to the rapists. All over India protests and demonstrations are going on to change the law with the provision to hang the rapist.

Delhi-NCR region was always considered the worst place in India for women safety. Recently, a gang rape took place in New Delhi on 16th December. The nature and circumstance of the case took the whole country in surprise and shock. A brutal gang rape took place in a bus moving around Delhi in the early hours of night. The girl and her male friend was severely beaten by rod. After a fight for life for 15 days, the girl died. Her injury by the rod became fatal.

Why people are demanding to hang the rapist?

The demand to amend the law for strict action against rapists is not new. Several times earlier too the demands to ensure the safety of the women and strict action against the rapists has been raised. However, nothing special has been done by any government in this area. Instead to show fewer rape cases on records, police several time try to avoid registering a rape case.

Capital punishment

The capital punishment has been abolished in several countries. However, in India, capital punishment is still awarded to the convicts, but only in rarest of the rare. Further, the appeal to revert the decision could be taken up to the Honorable President. Recently, the sole alive captured convict of Mumbai attack had been hanged after refusal from the President for pardon.

In general, when the death penalty is awarded by the civic court, it is for some heinous crimes. However, military court may award this punishment for espionage or at the time of war. In some countries religious crimes also results in capital punishment.

Which is a bigger crime: rape or murder

It is a matter of debate whether murder is a bigger crime or rape. However, in Indian context the growing trend in rape crime has attracted the attention of general public for strict action. The cultural and social factors brings the crime in the class of heinous crime. During my research to write this article, I came across an article Ten Most Heinous Crimes of the Decade. Even though the article is written by California based weekly magazine referring local crime records. Most of the crimes were related to brutal rapes or murders.

A crime is a crime. What makes a crime more heinous is the brutality and motive. Rape is considered more heinous as the motive is fun and entertainment. Take the example of latest Delhi rape case, just to enjoy a few minutes or hours, the convicts ended the life of a woman. Just for fun they commit a crime which resulted in her death.

Don’t get raped

In order to curb the growing cases of rape, two ways which comes to the mind of general public. Either to educate the young ladies how not to get raped or to give such a treatment to the convicts that they would think twice before committing this crime.

The second way to give hard punishment to the rapist is beyond the control of general public. It is against law. General public could not take law in their own hands.

In the process, the first way looks very simple to them and one would find mother, aunties and elders giving the tips to the young girls how to be safe and not get raped. Precaution is a good thing. When we are using knife, we should take precaution in using it. When we are driving we should be cautious. This does not mean that we should fear while driving or using knife. But, ask a lady, they fear roaming in nights. They fear going to an unknown place alone. They even fear to travel in public transport when no ladies are around. The fear is to get raped.

The fear among the ladies is created by the over enthusiast public to prevent their close ones getting raped. The daily newspaper giving one or two news about rape incidents creates more fear among them. In few cases, some victims due to fear could not even fight back the rapists. Obviously, growing cases of rapes are evident that this method used by the public is not correct. As it is not stopping the rapist in any way.

Talk about it

Don't rape, earn it by love

If the public really want to reduce the rape cases, they need to educate the male (youth) not to rape. They should be educated about love and sex. They should understand that sex is about mutual understanding. Women are not just piece of meat to satisfy them. Women have feelings. Sex is earned by love not snatched by force. I can understand that this is not easy. If I am feeling uncomfortable to express myself on the topic. In real time it is not at all easy. But, it is important. It needs to be done. Instead of giving lectures to your daughters, talk to your son. Share with them the feeling of satisfaction after winning the heart of a lady. It is to be won but not by force. Not by force at all.

Hang the rapist

Instead of talking to the male (youth), public wants hard punishment. As any person fears most from his death. They think that death is the hardest punishment that could be awarded to a rapist. When a person is most angry with someone. They don’t think wisely. The first thing that comes to any tempered person is death penalty. Hence, when the public is angry with the growing rape cases. The first punishment that is coming to the mind of any person is to hang the rapist.

Is it justified to hang the rapist?

The only judgment the public knows it to beat the culprit till death. There are many cases where even thief caught red handed by the public was beaten to death. However, judgments are not to be done based on aggression and mood. It should be done wisely.

Trauma felt by the victim and her family

Rape is not a crime committed only in India or Asian countries. It is committed all over the world. Rape becomes a trauma for the whole life for the victim. However, in Asian or African region, honor of the family is associated with women. Rape victims could never forget the moment throughout her life. Her life destroys forever. She can never have a social life afterwards. If she is unmarried, no family would like to accept the victim as their daughter-in-law. Overall, the social condition in the region makes the rape victim to suffer both the trauma of the her experience and consequences of its reaction throughout the life. Each day they live a life like living in hell.

Capital punishment is the softest punishment

Death Penalty is the softest punishment for such a heinous crime. Even though everyone fears death. It is not the most cruel punishment of all. Think of this. The victim throughout her life suffers the deed of the rapist. Each day each moment they suffer the pain. But, what the rapist are getting in punishment. A suffering for just few minutes or even seconds. Is it enough? Do we want to give them such a soft punishment? Ask any victim, their soul wants more. They want the rapists to suffer the similar pain throughout his life that they are suffering. The rapist should be punished in such a way that they feel shame on themselves for committing such a crime.

What should be the punishment for the rapist

There are a lot of punishment that would keep the rapist alive. The punishment should be such that each day the rapist would pray to be dead. Like burn the rapist till such an extent that they would not die. The burned skin and muscles give the unbearable pain. Instead of hanging the rapist, death by stone pelting is also a very hard punishment. These looks good as punishment. But, we live in India not in any Arab nation. We are not cruel in punishment. Human right is a measure issue when we think of hard punishment. However, in the rape cases castration of the convict is an option. It would keep them alive and feel sorry for the crime they did. In my opinion Castration of the rapist with life long imprisonment is the best punishment for them. In India, life imprisonment for than 14 years is rare. But, not uncommon. The rapist should be given till alive imprisonment with castration. However, as India has signed a UN treaty which prohibit life time imprisonment without parole. The sentence could be give to 100 years, 125 years without parole.

Being in prison is not at all a simple punishment when the sentence is for life time. An imprisonment of 14 years gives the convict a hope that they would be free someday. They hope that there would be someone waiting for their return. But, if there is no hope for getting out. No one is waiting for you. The life in itself becomes meaningless. Life without a hope, without a motto, without freedom is not a life. It is hell. Plus don’t forget the condition of prison in our country. Convict will love to go to hell than to be in an Indian prison.

Some might say, why to waste the money of hard-working Indians to keep these rapist alive and feed them. First of all, it will not cost much. Secondly, it will set a live example for them who commit such crimes. And lastly, don’t think they will earn a work free healthy food, three times a day. Corruption is everywhere. Our corrupt system don’t let them have the healthy and hygienic food.

If you have any other suggestions for the punishment within the human right limit. Share with us.

Demand for Changing the Law and its Implication

The demand to hang the rapist is coming along with the demand to strengthen the law and its practice. Like fast track courts for the hearing. Quick response for the complains. More security for the girls. From the perspective of the society, all these are important and need to be implemented.

Real scenario

When we look to the ground reality, the number of FIRs for rapes cases are not the real figures. In many cases where the victim belongs to poor family or dalit family, the police try to avoid the complaint. Many a times they don’t even lodge the FIR. The figures that we see and the original figure is quiet different. In rural or remote areas, more than half of the rape cases are not reported to the police. Out of those which are reported, not for everyone an FIR is registered. One may understand that the whole data of rape cases in India is incomplete and unreal. May be the state who are registering the lowest number of rape cases are actually not registering very few rape cases in their records.

Abuse of law

For the empowerment of women there are Anti-Dowry Laws. These laws are very strict. However, these laws are abused which even supreme court has accepted. See this article: Anti-Dowry Laws being abused in India: Supreme Court.

The implementation of law should be strict. But, it should be kept in mind that these laws should not be abused for personal gains and rivalry.

Conclusion

Many countries has abolished the capital punishment. But, still they are able to keep the crime rate in check. The rapist are not criminal who earn a living committing crimes. They do it for fun and they are among us. They are mentally ill. They commit the rape just for fun. It could be controlled or even stopped by talking with our son, brothers and friends. I don’t like the idea to hang the rapist.

 

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Benefits of Buying a Product Online Through Affiliates

How to help the Promoter of a product?In the recent times, more and more people are buying a product online. Back in 90′s, people are scary to use their credit card for online transactions. But, as the time progresses and confidence level increased, everyone is doing online shopping.

With development of e-commerce, number of websites, blogs have also increase. Most of these are either selling something or promoting something to earn money. However, it might interest you that only close to 0.1 % of webmasters of these websites are actually making money worth a living.

You must have visited several blogs with excellent articles. Your comments, likes and share to social sites like Facebook and twitter are the biggest reward for the blogger. Your comments and shares always give confidence to the blogger to share more such ideas.

Have you ever wonder how they are earning money? They show advertisements or links within the post to a specific product (called affiliate links) to earn a living. Whenever someone clicks on these links and buy a product, the blogger earns commission.

Whenever I buy a product online. I first try to buy it through an affiliate link. I try to look for my friends who might be affiliates of the product. If none of my friends are I try to find some one and try to buy through their affiliate link.

Is it worth the trouble? Why do I do this?

Help others

I’m sure you do a full research before buying a product either online or offline. Once, you are certain about your product. You can go directly to the webpage and buy the product. However, if you use an affiliate link to buy the same, cost to you would be absolutely same. However, someone else would earn some money which the seller is willing to pay.

For me there is no loss, I’m paying exactly same amount as I was earlier. However, without paying directly I’m donating money to someone. Someone is getting some extra money.

Actually this is not some sort of charity. The blogger whose affiliate link I’m using is already devoting his time to advertise the product. I’m just rewarding his labor.

Discount

Many products have discount coupons. The bloggers or advertisers use these coupons to attract customers. I have made this habit for searching an affiliate link as most of the time I get 5 % or 7.5 % discount. It is very easy to get these discount coupon at an advertiser’s page.

Special Bonus

Sometimes Bloggers give rewards for using their affiliate links. It might be free eBook, access to some special section or something else. Any how you are getting something free.

Company is Anyhow Rich

Whether you are purchasing a product directly or through an affiliate link. The company who is selling the product is going to earn handsome money. You might be amazed to know that in 2005 Google was paying $ 1.00 for every installation of Mozilla Firefox through their affiliate link. Even-though Google pay handsome payouts to its affiliate. The company grew and in fact this campaign help Google grow. As every installation of such Firefox browsers have pre-loaded Google toolbar. Either you use an affiliate link or not, once you have decided to buy a product. The company will earn.

Buy Always With an Affiliate Link

If this article have inspired you, I suggest you to bookmark all those blogs and website which you like starting today. Whenever, you are going to buy a product. Try to find an affiliate on these blogs and websites first.

If my article have helped or inspired you. Whenever you want an affiliate link to buy a product, mention the name of the product using the comment area below or mail me at [email protected]

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