Search Results for: expected jeemains2013 cut off

Interesting Facts About Christmas Tree

I’m going to share some of the interesting facts about Christmas Tree.

Christmas Tree Facts

Courtesy: CouponRefund.com

Great Moments in Christmas Tree History

  • The use of evergreen trees to celebrate the winter occurred before the birth of Christ.
  • The first decorated Christmas tree was in Riga, Latvia in 1510.
  • The first printed reference to Christmas trees appeared in Germany in 1531.
  • Besides evergreens, other types of trees such as cherry and hawthorns were used as Christmas trees in the past.
  • Using small candles to light a Christmas tree dates back to the middle of the 17th century.
  • Thomas Edison’s assistant, Edward Johnson, came up with the idea of electric lights for Christmas trees in 1882. Christmas tree lights were first mass-produced in 1890.
  • In 1900, large stores started to erect big illuminated Christmas trees.
  • The tradition of an official Chicago Christmas tree was initiated in 1913 when one was first lit by Mayor Carter H. Harrison in Grant Park.
  • The official Christmas tree tradition at Rockefeller Center began in 1933. Since 2004 the tree has been topped with a 550-pound Swarovski Crystal star. And since 2007, the tree has been lit with 30,000 energy-efficient LED’s which are powered by solar panels.
  • Every year since 1947, the people of Oslo, Norway have given a Christmas tree to the city of Westminster, England. The gift is an expression of good will and gratitude for Britain’s help to Norway during World War II.
  • Since 1971, the Province of Nova Scotia has presented the Boston Christmas tree to the people of Boston, in gratitude for the relief supplies received from the citizens of Boston after a ship exploded in 1917 following a collision in the Halifax, Nova Scotia Harbor. Part of the city was leveled, killing and injuring thousands.

Presidential Christmas Trees

  • In 1856 Franklin Pierce, the 14th President of the United States, was the first President to place a Christmas tree in the White House.
  • President Coolidge started the National Christmas Tree Lighting Ceremony on the White House lawn in 1923.
  • Teddy Roosevelt banned the Christmas tree from the White House for environmental reasons.
  • From 1948 to 1951, President Truman spent Christmas at his home in Independence, Missouri, and lit the National Community Christmas Tree by remote control. Truman agreed to stay at the White House for Christmas 1952, and personally lit the tree.
  • In 1963, the National Christmas Tree was not lit until December 22nd, because of a national 30-day period of mourning after the assassination of President Kennedy.
  • Since 1966, the National Christmas Tree Association has given a Christmas tree to the President and first family for display in the Blue Room.
  • In 1979, the National Christmas Tree was not lit except for the top ornament. This was done to honor the American hostages in Iran.
  • In 1984, the National Christmas tree was lit on December 13thwith temperatures in the 70′s, making it one of the warmest tree lightings in history.

Christmas tree © by zolakoma

 A Tree Grows In Brooklyn, and Elsewhere

  • Nineteenth century Americans cut their trees in nearby forests. Today most real Christmas trees are grown on farms as sustainable crops like corn or pumpkins.
  • 98 percent of all Christmas trees are grown on farms, while only 2% are cut from the wild.
  • To make sure enough trees for harvest, growers plant one to three seedlings for every tree harvested.
  • In 2012, 46 million Christmas tree seedlings were planted by U.S. growers.
  • More than 2,000 trees are usually planted per acre. On average 1,000-1,500 of these trees will survive. In the northern part of the country, perhaps 750 trees will remain.
  • Almost all trees require shearing to meet the Christmas tree shape. At six to seven feet, trees are ready for harvest.
  • It takes six to ten years of fighting heavy rain, wind, hail and drought to get a mature tree.
  • Most Christmas trees are cut weeks before they get to a retail outlet. It is important to keep them watered thoroughly when they reach your home. In the first week, a Christmas tree in your home will consume as much as a quart of water per day.

Is it, or Isn’t It?

  • Artificial Christmas trees were developed in Germany during the 19th century and later became popular in the United States. These “trees” were made using goose feathers that were dyed green and attached to wire branches. The wire branches were then wrapped around a central dowel rod that acted as the trunk.
  • In 1930 the U.S.-based Addis Brush Company created the first artificial Christmas tree made from brush bristles. The company used the same machinery that it used to manufacture toilet brushes, but they were dyed green.
  • Artificial Christmas trees made largely from aluminum were manufactured in the United States, first in Chicago in 1958.
  • Today, most artificial Christmas trees are made from PVC plastic. PVC trees are fire-retardant but not fire-resistant. Eighty percent of artificial trees worldwide are manufactured in China.
  • In 2011, 63% of U.S. households surveyed planned to buy a live tree, while 37% planned to buy an artificial trees.
  • 9.5 million artificial trees were purchased in the United States in 2011.

To Market, to Market

  • Live Christmas trees have been sold commercially in the United States since about 1850.
  • The first Christmas tree retail lot in the United States was started by Mark Carr in New York, in 1851.
  • From 1887-1933 a fishing schooner called the “Christmas Ship” would tie up at the Clark Street Bridge in Chicago and sell spruce trees from Michigan to Chicagoans.
  • In 2011, 31% of real Christmas trees sold were from chain stores or garden centers, 31% from cut and harvest farms, 14% from retail tree lots, and 13% from non-profit groups.
  • In 2011, 84% of the Christmas trees purchased were pre-cut, and 16% were cut-your-own.
  • An estimated 175,000 real Christmas trees are sold via e-commerce or catalogue and shipped mail order.
  • The most popular Christmas trees are: Scotch pine, Douglas fir, Noble fir, Fraser fir, balsam fir, and white pine.
  • Christmas trees are baled to protect the branches from damage during shipping.
  • Helicopters help to lift harvested Christmas trees from farms.

The United States of Trees

  • In the United States, there are more than 12,000 Christmas tree growers. Nearly 300 of these are in Illinois.
  • There are about 350 million Christmas trees growing on U.S. farms.
  • Approximately 100,000 people are employed full or part-time in the Christmas tree industry.
  • 30.8 million live Christmas trees were purchased in the United States in 2011, with a real market value of $1.07 billion.
  • The mean average purchase price of a live tree in 2011 was $34.87.
  • Oregon, North Carolina, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Washington, New York, and Virginia were the top Christmas tree producing states in 2009. Oregon was the leading producer of Christmas trees with 7.34 million trees in 2008.
  • 170,000 acres of land in the United States were in Christmas tree production in 2009. Oregon led the nation with 40,000 acres, and Illinois 2,000 acres in production.
  • Christmas trees are grown and harvested in all 50 states.
  • Michigan ranks third (1.6 million trees in 2007) among all states in the production of real Christmas trees, but grows a larger variety of Christmas trees than any other state.

Make your Christmas Really Green

  • 93% of real Christmas tree consumers recycle their tree in community recycling programs, their garden or backyard.
  • In the United States, there are more than 4,000 Christmas tree recycling programs.
  • Recycled real Christmas trees have been used to make sand and soil erosion barriers and been placed in ponds for fish shelter.
  • Growing Christmas trees provides a habitat for wildlife.
  • Christmas trees can remove dust and pollen from the air.
  • Cook County, IL uses old Christmas trees to rebuild housing structures for natural wildlife that has been destroyed through development.
  • Artificial trees will last for six years in your home, but for centuries in a landfill.
  • An acre of Christmas trees provides the daily oxygen requirements of 18 people.
  • You should not burn your Christmas tree in the fireplace; it can contribute to creosote buildup.
  • Live Christmas trees are involved in less than one-tenth of one percent of residential fires, and mostly when ignited by some external ignition sources. The major factors involved in Christmas tree fires are electrical problems, decorative lights, candles, and a heat source too close to the tree.

Source: http://urbanext.illinois.edu/trees/facts.cfm

Merry Christmas :)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Indian Economy: 2009 Vs. 2010

Introduction

Indian Economy is the eleventh largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). India was under social democratic based government under 1947 to 1991. This economy was based on public ownership and protectionism with slow growth rate. Since 1991, India changed its policy and reformed it to a market-based economy.

The currency of India is the Indian Rupee. As of 30th Dec 2010, 44.8 INR equals to 1 USD and 1 EUR equals 59.34 INR. The major stock exchanges in India are Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). India’s GDP accounts for 57.2% service industry, 28% industrial sector and 14.6% agricultural sector. The labour force totals half a billion workers. India currently accounts for 1.5% of world trade as of 2007 according to World Trade Organization (WTO).

Indicators of Economy

An economy has various indicators which allow analysis and prediction of future performances. Some of these are Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment rate, Consumer Price Index (a measure of Inflation), stock market prices and various others.

Gross Domestic Product

The gross domestic product (GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI) is the amount of goods and services produced in a year, in a country. It is the market value of all final goods and services made within the borders of a country in a year. In 2009, GDP nominal of India was $1,367 billion (11th) whereas; GDP PPP was $3,862 billion (4th). Forecast for 2010: GDP nominal will be $1,430 billion and GDP PPP will be $4,001 billion. If we compare per capita GDP, in 2009 GDP nominal per capita was $1,142 (142nd) and expected to be $1,176 for 2010. In 2009, GDP PPP per capita was $3,176 (127th) whereas in 2010 it is expected to be $3290. India’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate significantly slowed to 6.7% in 2008-09, but subsequently recovered to 7.2% in 2009-10

Inflation

A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes through time in the price level of consumer goods and services purchased by households. It is a measure of inflation. In India, instead of CPI, wholesale price index is calculated. The Indian method for calculating inflation, the Wholesale Price Index, is different from the rest of world. Each week, the wholesale price of a set of 435 goods is calculated by the Indian government. Since these are wholesale prices, the actual prices paid by consumers are far higher. The trend of Inflation rate is shown in the graph below. Have a look.


Figure 1: Consumer Price Index of India, Feb’09-Nov’10

The inflation rate in Apr 09 was 8.03%, lowest in the duration. It advances to sudden increase in Aug 09 at 11.89%. From there after, for four months the inflation rate was almost same. From Dec 09 it starts rising again and it goes to the max of the duration in Feb 10 with 16.22%. After that for the last 10 months it is coming down slowly and in Nov 10, inflation rate is 9.7%. Still, 9.7% is very high. But, compared to 16.22% it is much under control.

Unemployment Rate

The labour force in India is 467 million, 2nd in the world, as of 2009. The labour force division in each sector is 52% in agriculture, 14% in industry and 34% in services. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force. The unemployment rate of India in 2009 was 6.8% (85th rank) which is expected to increase to 10.7% (121st rank) in 2010.

Foreign Direct Investment

Following are some tables showing comparison of Stock of direct foreign investment – at home, Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad and Stock of domestic credit in USD.

Year

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

144200000000

23

50.27 %

31 December 2008 est.

2010

157900000000

24

9.50 %

31 December 2009 est.

 

Year

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

58180000000

30

55.15 %

31 December 2008 est.

2010

76620000000

26

31.69 %

31 December 2009 est.

 

Year

Stock of domestic credit

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

769300000000

16

0.00 %

31 December 2008

2010

973500000000

16

26.54 %

31 December 2009

 

Foreign Exchange Reserves

Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves or FX reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits and bonds held by central banks and monetary authorities. However, the term in popular usage commonly includes foreign exchange and gold, SDRs and IMF reserve positions. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in India in the start of 2009 were $254 billion. In the start of 2010, it was $274.7 billion. Currently, as of Nov’10 it is $300.2 billion.

Economy on the basis of Sectors

Industry

Industry accounts for 28% of the GDP and employ 14% of the total workforce. However, about one-third of the industrial labour force is engaged in simple household manufacturing only. The major industries in India are textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software and pharmaceuticals.

Year

Industrial production growth rate

Rank

Percent Change

Date of Information

2009

4.80 %

51

-43.53 %

2008 est.

2010

8.20 %

9

70.83 %

2009 est.

Services

India is fifteenth in services output. It provides employment to 23% of work force, and it is growing fast. It has the largest share in the GDP, accounting for 54.6% in 2009 and expected to be 57% in 2010. The total no. of people getting employment in this sector in 2010 will be 34% (estimated).

Conclusion

If we sum up the conclusion from above it is quite easy to say that India is progressing rapidly for 2010 than 2009. Being an agriculture based nation, India is changing slowly to an Industry based nation with support from service sector. The main concern in India’s progress is inflation rate. Value of INR has increased in the mentioned period. No doubt India is moving towards progress and next year we can see some much nice figures and ranks in all the section.

Impact of IT/ITES on Indian Economy

Imagine two persons talking about the growth rate of India! Can they discuss it without the role of Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) in Indian Economy? Now, think about another situation. Two persons are talking about the growth rate of India and the year is 1985. So, what do you think, would they be talking about the role of IT/ITES in Indian Economy? I don’t think so. Twenty five years back, no one would have dreamt of India as a major IT exporter. The nation lacking food & money would be a big player in computer sector. Today, it is one of the fastest growing nations and IT/ITES sector is busy writing the success story of India.

Today, India’s GDP is growing at a massive rate of 8.9% (estimated FY2010-11). It is expected that the share of IT/ITES industry in this GDP will be 6.1% as against 1.2% of 1998. For the past 10 years, GDP of India has grown on an average 6-7% every year. If a sector’s share in this growing GDP has increased from 1.2% to 6.1%, what could be the growth rate of that sector? Revenue of IT/ITES of India for FY2010 is expected to be 71.3 billion USD compared to merely around 6 billion USD in 2000. The growth in number of employees here for the past ten years has been 26%, making it largest employer in the organized private sector. Currently, direct employment by this sector is 2.3 million. Out of total Indian exports, 26% is the share of this sector for FY2010 as compared to 4 % in 1998. These are some figures which tell the story of storming by IT/ITES industry for the past ten years.

Indian economy has gained a lot from the development of IT/ITES sector. Research shows that out of every 1 job created in this sector, indirectly 4 additional jobs were created, 75% is for those who are SSC/HSC or less qualified, 15.85bn spent by this sector in the domestic economy in the FY2006, generated an additional output of 15.5 billion.

The development of this sector has not limited itself to Tier-I cities like Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad or NCR. It is going deep into Tier-II or III cities. An example is Bhubaneswar, a Tier-III city where all 4 major Indian IT companies: Infosys, Satyam, TCS and Wipro are present. In 2006-07, Orissa’s exports has raised by 60% over 2005-06. To promote this sector, SEZs are being built around with improvement in roads, retail, entertainment and housing facilities. The ratio of employees – technical to non-technical is 80:20, 4% come from economically backward class, while 58% of total employment is from Tier-II/III cities, and 30 % are in the age group of 18-25 yrs. These data show how this sector is penetrating the national economy and enhancing it right from the root.

India was known for exporting low technology oriented products of low quality. Now, to compete in the global market, IT/ITES companies have adopted high quality standards. This in turn affects other sectors too. In the process, not just India’s IT product is becoming a quality brand. But, overall ‘Made in India’ is getting quality brand recognition. Listing of Indian IT/ITES companies in various global stock exchanges, which requires abiding by strict global accounting norms, has helped build a strong image of companies and sector outside India. Indian IT/ITES industry is taking a key role in different acquisitions and mergers of overseas companies. This sector had highest share, 23% in outbound M&A deals in FY2006.

Till the advent of IT/ITES industry, Indian corporate consisted of only 2 types of companies-either large family owned business or multi-national companies. First generation entrepreneurs were hard to find. Now, the funds are enormous to support them. Their success has given confidence to other middle class individuals to exploit their chance of success. In the process many new first generation billionaires have come up. Some IT/ITES companies adopted the practice of Employees Stock Option Plan (ESOP), which enabled them to share their wealth with the employees to get more effort-based efficient work. Later, other companies too adopted this practice. Thereby, this process created many salaried employees.

 

ROLE OF IT/ITES

 

Direct contributions:

•    Growing share of the country’s GDP.

•    Boosting the foreign exchange reserve of India.

•    Employment generation.

 

Indirect contributions:

•    Additional employment generation.

•    Driving growth of other sectors of the economy.

•    Encouraging balanced regional development.

•    Fuelling the growth of PE/VC funding.

•    Improving the product/service quality level.

•    Spurring 1st generation entrepreneurship.

•    Front runner in practicing good corporate governance.

•    Boosting the image of India in the global market.

 

Diversity in employment

•    Encouraging employment of differently-abled: 60% of the employees.

•    Opening opportunities for non-technical personnel.

•    Creating employment opportunities in smaller towns/cities: 33% to 50% employees.

•    Promoting women: over 30% and youth employment.

•    Creating opportunities for the ‘out-of-the-main-stream’ candidates.

 

Initiatives for HRD:

•    Training of workforce through collaboration with educational institutes.

•    Promoting higher education through scholarships and tie-ups with educational institutes.

•    Improving work environment by providing recreational facilities and work-life balance.

 

Socially relevant products and services:

•    Education

•    Employability and entrepreneurship

•    Health

•    Bridging the digital divide

 

 

Conclusion

 

The IT/ITES industry has made a beginning and with the encouragement and support of NASSCOM and NASSCOM Foundation, it is on track to set an example that would encourage others to emulate and help changing the face of India. It is apt to conclude with a remark made by Nobel Laureate Dr. Amartya Sen, about the Indian IT/ITES industry, during his key note address at the NASSCOM India Leadership Summit 2007 -

My point is not that the IT industry should do something for the country at large, for that it does anyway. It makes enormous contributions; it generates significant incomes for many Indians; it has encouraged attention to technical excellence as a general requirement across the board; it has established exacting standards of economic success in the country; it has encouraged many bright students to go technical rather than merely contemplative; and it has inspired Indian industrialists to face the world economy as a potentially big participant, not a tiny little bit-player. My point rather, is that it can do even more, indeed in some ways, much more. This is partly because the reach of information is so wide and all-inclusive, but also because the prosperity and commanding stature of the IT leaders and activists give them voice, power and ability to help the direction of Indian economic and social development.

The impact of economic reforms has been that rich people have become richer and poor people poorer

 

In 1991, when the foreign exchange reserves had reduced to such an extent that India could barely finance three weeks’ worth of imports. Economic reforms were introduced in Indian economy. Before 1991, India was closed for foreign companies. It was a period very much known as License Raj. During this period, up to 80 agencies had to be satisfied before a firm could be granted a license to produce and the state would decide what was produced, how much, at what price and what sources of capital were used. The government also prevented firms from knocking off workers or closing factories. Indian economic policy was influenced by the colonial experience. There was monopoly in many sectors by state owned enterprises. This was the period which encouraged the corruption and red tape system in India. The annual growth rate for India during 1950 – 1980 was around 3.5 % compared to 9 % in 2009.

During the national economic crisis of 1991, when India was on the verge of Bankrupt, Government of India decided to bring up several economic reforms. Then PM, Mr. Narshimha Rao, appointed Manmohan Singh as a special economic adviser to implement the reforms. These reforms were mainly focused on liberalizing foreign investment and privatization of loss incurring government corporations. Some latest results have revealed that the scope and pattern of these reforms in India’s foreign investment and external trade sectors followed the Chinese experience with external economic reforms.

The impact of these reforms were seen in just few years as the total foreign investment in India grew from a infinitesimal US $132 million in 1991-92 to $5.3 billion in 1995-96. In initial years of reform, 1991–1992, poverty increased in India slightly. But, later on number of people below poverty line decreased. And, a steep declined in number of person below poverty line in between 1993 to 1998 was seen. Currently, number of middle class in India is expected to be 300 million, which is expected to double by 2025 to 600 million. It is sure that as the economy of India will boom, new millionaire and billionaire will join the list. There will be new addition in the upper class list, mostly coming out of present middle class. Also, the 300 million new middle class people must come from non-other than lower class or poor people list. These trends are taken from the last 5-10 years data. So, the poor are quickly transforming in middle class with increase in their earnings. This shows that the impact of economic reform is helping poor to convert them into middle class. So, impact of economic reforms has not been that poor people have become poorer. But, yeah rich people have become richer.

With revolution in many sectors in India, GDP of India has showed a tremendous growth. Telecom sector is very much saturated in metropolitan and many urban cities. Now, new companies are aiming at rural area with immense network of towers coming around rural sectors. Obviously, this is going to strengthen rural economy. Till now, urban economy has played a major role in economic progress of India after the reforms. However, with improving the network of roads in rural areas and good communication, our villages are going to see sure success. This all is going to help the poor.

 

%d bloggers like this: